The study aims to address whether serum anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) levels fluctuate in the short term after medication application, including oral contraceptives (OCs), metformin (MET), Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), vitamin D (VD), clomiphene citrate (CC), and letrozole (LET).
Published literature from PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane central was retrieved up until 19 September 2021. A total of 51 self-control studies with an average Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale (NOS) score of 6.90 were analyzed. The extracted data were entered into Stata software, and the weighted mean difference/standardized mean difference (WMD/SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used for data analysis.
After OCs treatment the AMH level showed a significant decline in women with normal ovarian function, which was significant within 3 months (WMD = -1.43, 95% CI: -2.05 to -0.80, P < 0.00001). After MET treatment, the serum AMH decreased in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients (WMD = -1.79, 95% CI: -2.32 to -1.26, P < 0.00001), in both obese and non-obese patients. GnRH-a treatment in endometriosis patients led to dynamic changes in the serum AMH levels, that is, ascent at 1 month (P = 0.05), and descent at 3 months (P = 0.02). After DHEA treatment the serum AMH increased in diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) / poor ovarian response (POR) patients (WMD = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.27, P < 0.0001). After VD treatment the serum AMH increased, and it was obvious in non-PCOS patients (WMD = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.34 to 1.21, P = 0.0004). After CC treatment the serum AMH decreased significantly in PCOS patients, specifically in non-obese patients (WMD = -1.24, 95% CI: -1.87 to -0.61, P = 0.0001).
Serum AMH levels may be affected in the short term after drug application. Specifically, OC, MET and CC lead to decreased AMH level, DHEA and VD lead to increased AMH level, and GnRH-a leads to dynamic variation, which is correlated with PCOS, obesity, age, and duration of medication. The impacts of these medications should be taken into consideration when AMH is used as a marker of ovarian reserve.